R. Keith Sawyer, Washington University in St. Louis
Sawyer, R. K. (2012). Learning how to create: Toward a learning sciences of art and design. In J. v. Aalst, K. Thompson, M. J. Jacobson & P. Reimann (Eds.), The Future of Learning: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS 2012)–Volume 1, Full papers (pp. 33-39). Sydney, Australia: International Society of the Learning Sciences.
Abstract: This paper is the first report on an extensive ethnographic study of two professional schools of art and design in the United States. The overall purpose of the study is to identify general principles for how to design learning environments that prepare learners to be creative. First, I document the cultural model of teaching and learning held by the faculty and students, and analyze the pedagogical practices used. This studio model is of interest because it emerged naturally in a community of educational practice. I argue that it is distinct from the two cultural models most familiar to learning scientists: instructionism and apprenticeship. Second, I argue that the studio model is more closely aligned with learning sciences principles than either instructionism or apprenticeship. Third, I draw lessons from this studio model for designing learning environments in all school subjects, in particular STEM subjects.
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